城牆或城堡採用了哪些特殊的設計和設施來提高防禦力? | 知乎問答精選

 

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城牆或城堡採用了哪些特殊的設計和設施來提高防禦力?

2016年11月01日 知乎問答精選 暫無評論 閱讀 49 ℃ 次

是否可以對比一下中西方城防設施異同,可以的話推薦一些相關的閱讀資料,比較專業的論壇網站或大牛出沒的博客。

【yolfilm的回答(9票)】:

在知乎上,不該推薦這種東西。

但,這個網址可供參考。是我認為這個相關題目,搜集的最好的一個合輯。

verycd.com/topics?

中文名:?世界防禦要塞系列圖書

原名:?Osprey Fortress Series

版本:?更新至第19本/已出56本(超清晰掃瞄版).pdf

發行時間:?2003年

地區:?美國

簡介 :?

Each book examines the history, evolution, military architecture and natural setting of the world's most important fortification systems. Cutaway artwork and exploded diagrams reveal the key features of each subject.?

本系列的每一本圖書都是以世界各地的最著名最重要的軍事防禦工事系統為對象,仔細研究了相關的歷史、時代的發展、軍事建築、自然位置等方面的內容。書中包含大量的剖面圖、透視圖等為我們展現了每一個對象的重要的特徵與細節。

Design, technology and history of key fortresses, strategic positions and defensive systems?

本系列圖書為我們展示了每一座防禦要塞的設計、建造工藝、歷史、戰略位置和防禦系統等諸多方面的要點。

本系列圖書為英文版,圖文並茂,超清晰超詳細。

1.世界防禦要塞系列01_日本二戰太平洋島嶼防禦1941-45_Osprey_Fortress01_Japanese Pacific island.pdf Defenses 1941-45

The prolonged and bloody fighting for control of the Japanese occupied Pacific islands in World War II is a key point in 20th-century warfare. No two islands were alike in the systems and nature of their defensive emplacements, and local improvization and command preferences affected both materials used and defensive models. This title details the establishment, construction and effectiveness of Japanese temporary and semi-permanent crew-served weapons positions and individual and small-unit fighting positions. Integrated obstacles and minefields, camouflage and the changing defensive principles are also covered.?

二戰期間太平洋戰場上爭奪那些被日本侵略軍盤踞的島嶼的那些持久而又血腥的戰鬥是20世紀世界戰爭的一個新特點,沒有任何兩個島嶼的防禦工事在其系統和自然位置等方面是相似的,在戰爭中的改進與指揮水平也影響了器材的選用以及防禦模式…… 等等的這些都向讀者詳細說明了日本軍隊各種臨時性與半永久性的重武器工事、班排級掩體、單兵掩體之間的組織關係、建築之間的關係、效率的發揮等內容。本書同時還包括了有關多重障礙物、雷場、轉換防禦的原則等方面的內容。

2.世界防禦要塞系列02_阿德裡安城牆防禦體系(公元122-410)_Osprey_Fortress02_Hadrian's Wall AD 122-410.pdf

Hadrian』s Wall is the most important monument built by the Romans in Britain. It is the best known frontier in the entire Roman Empire and stands as a reminder of the past glories of one of the world's greatest civilisations. Its origins lie in a visit by the Emperor Hadrian to Britain in AD 122 when he ordered the wall to be built to mark the northern boundary of his Empire and 'to separate the Romans from the Barbarians'. This title details the design, development and construction of the wall and covers the everyday lives of those who manned it as well as the assaults it withstood.

阿德裡安城牆是羅馬人在不列顛建造的重要的紀念碑。它因是整個羅馬帝國的邊界而廣為人知,而且也代表著那個世界最偉大的文明之一——古羅馬——的榮譽。它最早是在阿德裡安皇帝在公元122年巡視不列顛是時候建造起來的,當時它的主要作用只是作為羅馬帝國邊界並且把羅馬人同歐洲蠻族相隔離。本書詳細闡述了這條城牆的設計、演變和建造等,以及那些年代中守衛這條防線的人們。

3.世界防禦要塞系列03_二戰德國U型潛艇基地與要塞1941-45_Osprey_Fortress03_U-Boat Bases and Bunkers 1941-45.pdf

Few of the massive military structures built by Germany during World War II are as impressive as the U-Boat bases and bunkers in Germany, Norway and France. This title takes a close look at the formidable edifices on the French coast (Brest, Lorient, St Nazaire, La Pallice, Bordeaux) in Norway (Bergen, Trondheim) and Germany (Keil, Hamburg, Helgoland) and also focuses on the huge 'Valentin' factory complex at Bremen, which manufactured the new type XXI electro-boats. Bunker protective systems, such as camouflage, light and heavy flak installations and nearby air cover, are also examined as well as resident flotillas and the fate of the bases at war's end.?

提起德國在二戰中建造的那些巨大的軍事建築物,給人印象最深刻的就是那些分佈在德國、挪威、法國的U型潛艇的基地與掩體。本書詳細展示了位於法國海岸(Brest佈雷斯特、Lorient羅連安特、St Nazaire聖納扎爾、La Pallice拉帕利斯、Bordeaux波爾多)、挪威海岸(Bergen卑爾根、Trondheim特隆赫姆)、德國海岸(Keil基爾、Hamburg漢堡、Helgoland赫爾戈蘭)的那些龐大的建築,同時也為我們具體展現了位於不來梅的Valentin工廠(此工廠建造了XXI級柴電潛艇)。本書還講述了堡壘群的防禦系統的偽裝、輕重高射炮、附近的空中掩護、附近駐守的艦隊以及這些基地在戰爭後的命運。

4.世界防禦要塞系列04_美軍在柯雷吉多爾島和馬尼拉灣防禦(1898-1945)_Osprey_Fortress04_American Defenses of Corregidor and Manila Bay 1898-1945.pdf

The Philippines were declared an American Territory on January 4, 1899, and fortification construction soon began on the islands in the mouth of Manila Bay. Among the sites built were Fort Mills (Corregidor), Fort Frank, and the formidable "concrete battleship" of Fort Drum. The defenses suffered constant Japanese bombardment during World War II, leading to the surrender of American forces. In 1945 the forts were manned by Japanese soldiers determined to hold out to the bitter end. This title details the fortifications of this key strategic location, and considers both their effectiveness and historical importance.?

菲律賓在1899年1月4日被併入美國領土,接著在馬尼拉灣出口的那些小島上就有要塞開始建築了。這些中有mill堡(在柯雷吉多爾島上)、flank堡、被成為混凝土戰艦的drum堡。這些堡壘在二戰中遭受到的日本軍隊的持續轟擊導致了美國軍隊的投降。這些堡壘在1945年又被日本士兵們拚死據守。本書還涵蓋有詳細講述要塞的戰略位置、防禦效能的考量及歷史價值的章節。

5.世界防禦要塞系列05_日本古代城堡1540-1640_Osprey_Fortress05_Japanese Castles 1540-1640.pdf

The landscape of 16th- and 17th-century Japan was dominated by the graceful and imposing castles constructed by the powerful 『daimyo』 of the period. In this the most turbulent era in Japanese history, these militarily sophisticated structures provided strongholds for the consolidation and control of territory, and inevitably they became the focus for many of the great sieges of Japanese history: Nagashino (1575), Kitanosho (1583), Odawara (1590), Fushimi (1600), Osaka (1615) and Hara (1638), the last of the battles that brought an end to a period of intense civil war. This title traces their development from the earliest timber stockades to the immense structures that dominated the great centres of Osaka and Edo.

在16世紀至17世紀時的日本風景,主要被那些由當時統治日本的「大名」們修建的優雅而壯麗的城堡所主宰。在那個日本歷史上最為動盪的年代裡,這些最為精妙的軍事建築起到了鞏固和控制統治區域的作用,顯然,這些城堡也成了日本歷史上那些重大的攻城戰發生的焦點:長筱(1575)、北之莊城(1583)、小田原(1590)、伏見(1600)、大阪(1615)、原城(1638),這場最後的戰役帶來了日本動盪的戰國時代的終結。本文探究了坐鎮在大阪地區和伊豆半島那些城堡的從木製據點到宏偉的建築的發展歷程。

6.世界防禦要塞系列06_美國內戰防禦工事一——海岸線上的磚石堡壘_Osprey_Fortress06_American Civil War Fortifications(1).pdf

The 50 years before the American Civil War saw a boom in the construction of coastal forts in the United States of America. These stone and brick forts stretched from New England to the Florida Keys, and as far as the Mississippi River. At the start of the war some were located in the secessionist states, and many fell into Confederate hands. Although a handful of key sites remained in Union hands throughout the war, the remainder had to be won back through bombardment or assault. This book examines the design, construction and operational history of those fortifications, such as Fort Sumter, Fort Morgan and Fort Pulaski, which played a crucial part in the course of the Civil War.?

到美國南北戰爭爆發時為止,美利堅合眾國的海岸堡壘群已經熱火朝天地建造了50年。這些磚石城堡一直從新英格蘭延伸到佛羅里達的珊瑚礁,就像密西西比河那樣長。南北戰爭開始時,南方和北方各自擁有部分的海岸城堡。儘管有部分城堡在戰爭期間一直掌控在聯邦軍手中,而其他的城堡則只能依靠轟擊和攻擊才贏回來。本書詳細介紹了那些城堡的設計、建造、和運作的歷史,特別提及了在南北戰爭中位置極其重要的Sumter堡、Morgan堡、Pulaski堡。

7.世界防禦要塞系列07_托裡什韋德拉什防線1809-1811_Osprey_Fortress07_The Lines of Torres Vedras 1809-11.pdf

Following the battle of Bussaco on 27 September 1810 Wellington's heavily outnumbered troops began to withdraw towards Lisbon. By the evening of 9 October the British and Portuguese began to withdraw behind a line of defensive works that had been built to the north of Lisbon. These were not the rudimentary field works that the French anticipated, but an enormous network of forts, batteries and redoubts whose construction had been started the previous November - the Lines of Torres Vedras. This 30-mile-wide line utilised the area's natural defences, damming rivers, scarping hillsides, blocking roads and establishing forts upon almost all of the hills. This title describes its design, creation and effectiveness in the face of French attacks.

隨著bussaco戰役的進行,1810年9月27日,惠靈頓將軍人數眾多的重裝部隊撤向了里斯本。到10月9日晚上,這支英國和葡萄牙的聯軍撤到了早就建造在里斯本以北的一條防線後面。這已經不是法國人早先調查過的那塊未設防地域了,在11月到來之前,這裡已經擁有了龐大的堡壘防禦網、炮兵陣地、永久性堡壘——托裡什韋德拉什防線。這條30英里寬的防線充分利用了當地的自然地理狀況來構建其防禦體系,阻塞了的河流、陡峭的山坡、阻塞的道路和建造好了的堡壘遍佈了整個山脈。本書的章節描述了這條防線的設計和建造等細節,以及面對法軍攻擊時所發揮的防禦效能。

8.世界防禦要塞系列08_珍珠港與瓦胡島的防禦1907-50_Osprey_Fortress08_Defenses Of Pearl Harbor And Oahu 1907-50.pdf

At the beginning of the 20th century, the military importance of the Hawaiian Islands became clear. Oahu in particular was a key bastion in projecting America's military power in the Pacific. The island was turned into a military fortress - and yet it also became the site of one of America's greatest defensive failures, the Japanese attack of December 7, 1941. By the end of World War II, the harbor itself was the most heavily defended in the world, and the island had earned the sobriquet "Fortress Oahu". This title documents the development of the coastal, air and land defense systems that served to protect Pearl Harbor and Honolulu from 1907 to 1950, and seeks to understand why these failed at a critical point.

進入20世紀,夏威夷群島的重要性日益顯現。特別的,瓦胡島是美國軍事力量在太平洋上關鍵的前進基地。這個島開始變成了軍事要塞——至今仍是美國最為失敗的防守之地——1941年12月7日日本人偷襲了這個島。到二戰結束時,珍珠港已經成了世界上防禦最為嚴密的地方,並且這個島也贏得了「瓦胡要塞」的稱呼。本文評述了在1907年到1950年用來防守珍珠港和檀香山的海岸、空中、陸地防禦體系及其演變過程,併力求使讀者明白這些防禦為什麼在關鍵時刻沒能發揮作用。

9.世界防禦要塞系列09_英國內戰城堡防禦工事1642-51_Osprey_Fortress09_English Civil War Fortifications 1642-51.pdf

The techniques of European warfare were transformed during the 15th and 16th centuries by the use of gunpowder and by substantial progress in the effectiveness and destructive power of artillery. The series of conflicts in the 1640s, known collectively as the English Civil War, was the first in the British Isles that reflected this new reality. Sieges that aimed at isolating and reducing fortified places became the dominant instrument for prosecuting the war and protective fortifications were vital, for both the besieged as well as the besieger. This title describes how both the Parliamentarians and the Royalists made use of new fortification techniques throughout the course of this conflict.

由於火藥的使用和火炮的威力與破壞力有了實質性的進展,15世紀與16世紀歐洲戰爭技術有了翻天覆地的變化。這一現實在不列顛島上1640年代中的一系列衝突中得到了第一次的體現。 對於攻城戰的雙方來講,以孤立並消耗築壘地域為目的的攻城戰成為戰爭的決定性手段、同時保護築壘地域的防禦工事也生死攸關。本書記述了議會軍和國王軍雙方在整個戰爭衝突期間是怎麼樣應用新出現的築壘防禦技術。

10.世界防禦要塞系列10_馬其諾防線1928-45_Osprey_Fortress10_The Maginot Line 1928-45.pdf

The Maginot Line, the massive series of fortifications built by France in the 1930s to defend its borders with Germany and Italy, is perhaps the most maligned collection of fortifications ever built. Despite being a technological marvel, and the most sophisticated and complex set of fortifications built up to that time, it failed to save France from crushing defeat in 1940. Yet there are those who argue that it accomplished exactly what it was designed to do. This book provides a concise and informative treatment of the Maginot Line, from North-East France to the Mediterranean. Packed with plans, contemporary and modern images, plus digital artwork, it presents a detailed visual exploration of this famous fortification system.

馬其諾防線是法國在1930年代為了保衛其與德國和意大利的防線而修建的規模巨大的防禦工事體系,它可能也是迄今為止遭受非議最多的防禦工事。儘管它曾是那個年代的技術奇跡,同時也是那個年代最為精密和複雜的防禦體系,可它並沒有將法國從1940年的決定性的失敗中挽回。至今仍有很多人為這條防線的真實意義而爭論不休。本書呈現了從法國東北部到地中海的這條馬其諾防線的簡要運行情況。同時本書還提供了一些平面圖、當時的和現在的一些照片、同時還提供了數字技術的影像——為我們呈現了這個著名的防禦工事系統的詳盡的、直觀的內部構造。

11.世界防禦要塞系列11_日爾曼騎士們的十字軍城堡——普魯士的紅磚城堡1230-1466_Osprey_Fortress11_Crusader Castles Of The Teutonic Knights.pdf

Throughout their stormy history the Teutonic Knights of Germany have always been the most controversial brotherhood ever to call themselves 'Knights of Christ'.They were the most warlike of the religious orders, and this is reflected in the architecture they left behind. In contrast to the Templars, who are remembered for their churches, the Teutonic memorials are the magnificent brick-built castles they built as a result of their conquest of Prussia between 1230 and 1380. Many of these dramatic fortresses still exist today in what is now Poland, and provide a unique example of an architectural style that closely reflects the nature of the Order.

在德意志的條頓騎士那混亂的歷史中,這些騎士們曾經形成了頗受爭議的兄弟會組織——儘管號稱「耶穌之騎士團」。在宗教的感召下他們是最為好戰的人,這點可以從他們棲身的城堡中體現出來。與那些被銘刻在教堂中默默無聞的聖殿騎士形成鮮明對比的是,那些尊為日爾曼歷史的紀念碑的富麗堂皇的磚砌城堡,正是這些日爾曼騎士們在1230年至1380年間征服普魯士大地的戰利品。這些輝煌的城堡仍有很多屹立在今天的波蘭境內,這種如此相似的建築風格正是屬於同宗教會的生動寫照。

12.世界防禦要塞系列12_伊比利亞半島戰爭的防禦工事1808-14_Osprey_Fortress12_Fortresses Of The Peninsular War 1808-14.pdf

In the course of the Peninsular War, Wellington』s army fought several hard battles and smaller actions, but it was the bloody sieges that troubled him more than anything else. Indeed, the performance of his army during the sieges was probably the most disappointing aspect of what was otherwise an extremely successful campaign. Taking 1808 as its starting point, this title deals with the fortress sieges that involved Wellington』s Anglo-Portuguese army, and concentrates on four key sites in particular (Ciudad Rodrigo, Badajoz, Burgos and San Sebastian). All of these played a vital role in the war due to their strategically important positions. It documents both the sieges and the storming of the fortresses, as well as the general role of the fortresses in Spain and the impact they had on the thinking of the commanders and strategies of the armies involved.?

在伊比利亞半島戰爭期間,惠靈頓將軍的軍隊進行了大大小小的數次戰役與衝突,這其中,令將軍感到最為棘手的就是血腥而殘酷的攻城戰。實際上,贏得戰役的偉大勝利也沒能掩飾這支軍隊在攻城戰中的令人及其失望的糟糕表現。1808年的攻城只是一個開始,自此以後,攻城戰成了惠靈頓將軍的英葡聯軍所面對的無盡的煩惱,特別集中體現在以下四個關鍵的地點:羅德裡戈城Ciudad Rodrigo、巴達霍斯Badajoz、博格斯Burgos、聖塞巴斯蒂安San Sebastian。由於它們重要的戰略位置,在戰爭中攻克它們成了生死攸關的任務。本書述了圍繞著城堡所發生的圍困與攻擊的戰鬥,同時也記述了西班牙大地上的防禦工事的全貌,以及指揮官的想法與軍事戰略對攻城戰所產生的影響。

13.世界防禦要塞系列13_諾曼底人的石頭城堡一——不列顛島1066-1216_Osprey_Fortress13_Norman Stone Castles (1).pdf?

Descended from the Viking raiders who settled in Northern France under the leadership of Rollo in around 911, the Normans were amongst the most feared warriors of their time. Their territorial ambitions culminated in Duke William 1's conquest of England in 1066, but although victory at Hastings left the English crown in William's hands, Norman sovereignty remained far from established on the island. In order to consolidate his position, the new king built a series of fortifications across the country - this book covers all these developments from the early days of William I through to the fortifications of Henry II, Richard I and John.

遺傳自那些在911年定居在法國北部的由首領羅洛Rollo帶領的那些維京強盜的祖先,諾曼底人是那個年代最為強悍的戰士。他們對領土的貪慾在威廉一世爵士1066年征服英格蘭的時候達到了極點,但是儘管黑斯廷斯大捷使英格蘭的王冠落入了征服者威廉的手中(意指英格蘭已經投降),諾曼底人的國家在不列顛島上卻延續了好久。為了鞏固他的政權,新國王在他的國土上建造了一連串的防禦城堡——本書的內容包含了所有這些城堡的發展演變的歷程——從威廉一世直到亨利二世、裡查德一世和約翰。

14.世界防禦要塞系列14_韋塞克斯(英國南部)的城堡800-1066_Osprey_Fortress14_Fortifications In Wessex c.800-1066.pdf

The defence of the 9th-century kingdom of Wessex under King Alfred against the 'Great Viking Army' is one of the major military achievements of Early Medieval history. While the guerrilla warfare in the Somerset marshes and the battle of Edington are characteristic of Alfred's military abilities, his definitive physical achievement was a series of some 30 well-structured fortifications (known as burhs) across the kingdom. Many of these fortifications survive to this day and some were even reinforced to stand up to German tanks in the expected invasion of 1940. This title describes their beginnings in the turbulent early years of Alfred』s reign as well as their subsequent development and use.

國王阿爾弗萊德Alfred統治下的韋塞克斯王國於公元9世紀抵禦了強大的維京軍團的這一防禦作戰是歐洲中世紀早期歷史的主要軍事成就之一。當時在Somerset沼澤地區進行的游擊作戰和愛丁頓戰役是阿爾弗萊德的軍事才能的典型表現,他的終極軍事成就就是遍佈他的王國的一系列大約30個建造得非常好的城堡(亦稱burh)。這些城堡中有一些至今猶存,甚至在1940年還有部分城堡被加固過用來抵禦可能預見的德國坦克的進攻。本書描述了在那個動盪的阿爾弗萊德統治時期這些城堡的出現以及其後的演變和應用。

15.世界防禦要塞系列15_納粹德國的西部防線——齊格弗裡德防線_Osprey_Fortress15_Germany's West Wall Siegfried Line.pdf

The West Wall (or the Siegfried Line as the Allies called it) played a crucial role in the bitter fighting of 1944 and 1945 in North-West Europe. Constructed in the period immediately after the remilitarisation of the Rhineland in 1936, the Wall stretched for 300 miles from Cleve in the north to the Swiss Border and consisted of some 14,000 pillboxes. The Wall initially blunted the US attack, and Hitler used it as a foundation from which to launch the Ardennes Offensive. This title takes a detailed look at the development and form of this key fortification, examining the principles of its defence in visual depth, and discussing its fate in the wake of the Allied onslaught.?

納粹德國的西部防線(盟軍稱之為「齊格弗裡德防線」)在1944年和1945年西北歐洲的殘酷戰鬥中起了至關重要的作用。這條防線是在德國違反《凡爾賽和約》派軍隊進駐萊茵蘭地區後就立即修建起來了,這條防線從克萊弗一直延伸300英里直達瑞士的邊境,由大約14000個碉堡組成。這條防線最初抵禦住了美軍的進攻勢頭,並且希特勒用這條防線作為發動阿登森林反擊的基地。本書詳細呈現了這條防線的形成過程,並且以關鍵的防禦工事為例,栩栩如生地深入探究了其防禦原理,論述了其在盟軍的攻擊下的突然陷落。

16.世界防禦要塞系列16_馬耳他的防禦要塞1530-1945_Osprey_Fortress16_The Fortifications of Malta 1530-1945.pdf

The Island of Malta occupies a pivotal position in the Mediterranean, forming an outpost between North Africa and the soft underbelly of Europe. Such has been its strategic importance throughout the years that it has become one of the most fortified places in the world. Following the successful defence of the island during the Great Siege of 1565, the Knights Hospitaller built new walls and fortifications. These defences failed when Napoleon occupied Malta in 1798, and the island was retaken by the British in 1800. From this point onwards, Malta』s defences were modernised throughout the 19th century and the island』s final test came during World War II. This book examines all these different styles of fortification from the 16th to the 20th century.

馬耳他島佔據了地中海的樞紐位置,它是連接北非和歐洲南部重要中轉地點。這有重要戰略意義的地理位置導致了它在漫長的歷史長河中成為世界上防禦最為強大的地方之一。在1565年成功地抵抗住了攻城戰之後,豪斯比達爾爵士(Knights Hospitaller )建造了新的城牆和防禦工事。這些防禦在1798年拿破侖佔領馬耳他時期被攻陷,整個馬耳他島也在1800年被英國佔領。在這些歷史事件的基礎上,馬耳他的防禦工事在整個19世紀都在不斷地被更新、加固,並且這個島也順利地度過了二戰時期。本書探究了從16世紀到20世紀所有這些不同的防禦工事的形式。

17.世界防禦要塞系列17_特洛伊城_公元前1700-公元前1250_Osprey_Fortress17_Troy c.1700-1250BC.pdf

Hisarlik is a small place, a sandy stone strewn hillock cut up into gullies and hummocks. Yet its historical significance is immense, for this is the site of Troy - the legendary city whose story sprawls across cultures, time and geography. The tale of the siege of Troy is the greatest secular story ever told, and has captured the imagination of the Western World for some 3,000 years. Although there are many difficulties in using Greek myths, oral traditions and the Homeric epics to reconstruct the Trojan War, this title uses the latest archaeological evidence to reconstruct in detail the fortifications of Troy as well as making more general observations about the possible historical events behind the epics of Homer.

希沙立克一個小地方,佈滿砂石的小山丘使這裡到處是千溝萬壑的景象。至今這裡的歷史意義仍是博物館,因為這裡是特洛伊城的所在地——就是那個穿越了文明、時間、空間的故事所發生的傳奇城市。圍攻特洛伊城的故事曾經是世界上最偉大的長詩(《荷馬史詩》),並且使整個西方世界神魂顛倒了大約3000年。儘管在希臘神話中少有提及,但是世代的口耳相傳和《荷馬史詩》使我們能夠重建特洛伊戰爭。本書採用最近的考古遺跡來重建特洛伊城的防禦工事的細節,就像是在《荷馬史詩》的書中對可能發生的歷史事件進行綜合考察一樣。

18.世界防禦要塞系列18_諾曼底人的石頭城堡二-歐洲950-1204_Osprey_Fortress18_Norman Stone Castles(2)Europe 950-1204.pdf

Following the creation of the Duchy of Normandy, the Normans were soon introduced to the castle and they built them in large numbers. In the mid-11th century, other Norman adventurers began carving out dominions for themselves in Southern Italy: some crossed to Sicily in 1061 and by 1091 had conquered the whole island. As in Normandy, they were keen to assimilate new ideas, including architectural styles, resulting in some striking buildings. This title, a companion to Fortress 13: Norman Stone Castles (1) The British Isles 1066-1216, provides a detailed guide to the castles built in Normandy, Southern Italy and Sicily, covering defensive principles, daily life, the events of siege warfare, and the fate of the castles.?

在諾曼底公國成立以後,諾曼底人迅速地建造了大量的城堡。在11世紀中期,一部分諾曼底冒險者在南部意大利開拓了自己的領地:一些領主在1061年征服了一部分的西西里,到1091年為止,整個西西里島已經被征服了。就像是在諾曼底一樣,這些諾曼底人不斷吸收新的想法,特別是表現在某些顯著建築的風格上。本書是和《世界防禦要塞系列13_諾曼底人的石頭城堡一——不列顛島1066-1216》一套的。為那些建造在諾曼底、南部意大利和西西里島的城堡提供了詳盡的介紹,包括有防守作戰的原理、城堡內的日常生活、一些攻城戰鬥以及這些城堡的命運。

19.世界防禦要塞系列19_日爾曼騎士們的十字軍城堡二拉托維亞和愛沙尼亞的石頭城堡11851560_Osprey_Fortress19_Crusader Castles Of The Teutonic Knights (2).pdf

The original forced conversion of pagan Livonia, what is now the Baltic states of Latvia and Estonia, was carried out by a military order known as the Brethren of the Sword. In 1236 this order was incorporated into the Teutonic Knights following a catastrophic military defeat. The knights had always consolidated their conquests through networks of castles and fortified places, and the Livonian Chapter of the Teutonic Order built castles of stone. This title covers the developmental and operational history of these fortresses over the length of the Middle Ages. It details how the Baltic fortifications of the Teutonic Knights evolved to reflect the changing nature of siege warfare and the increasing dominance of gunpowder in warfare.

在一個被稱為「劍之兄弟」的軍事頭領的領導之下,最初以武力使那些信奉異教的立沃尼亞人(分佈在現在波羅的海沿岸的拉脫維亞和愛沙尼亞)皈依了基督教。在1236年,這個頭領在一次軍事慘敗後被日耳曼條頓騎士團降服。條頓騎士團通常以城堡和防禦工事組成的防衛網來鞏固其對一地區的征服,日耳曼條頓騎士團下的立沃尼亞教會也建造了許多石頭城堡。本書講述了在中世紀時期這些防禦工事發展和運作的歷史,詳細闡述了日耳曼條頓騎士團分佈在波羅的海沿岸的城堡是如何適應圍城戰和火藥戰爭的發展而「進化」的。

【陳叔至的回答(0票)】:

可讀《劍橋戰爭史》

【陳克的回答(0票)】:

加厚,女牆,護城河

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